• Haberler

Taşımacılık Terimleri
Allgemeine Begriffe und Bedeutungen von Autobahnen

General Terms and Meanings
Road General Terms
It is a standard that includes the rules for the transportation of flammable, explosive and chemical substances by land. The law regarding membership to the ADR convention was enacted in the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 30 November 2005. The law entered into force on 1 January 2009
Vehicle Monitoring System. It is a system in which vehicles are tracked via satellite using GPS and GPRS technologies.
It is the place where the goods are kept under the supervision and control of the customs administration with the declaration given to the customs administration and allowed to be opened according to the provisions of the law.
Transfer Center
They are regional processing centers where incoming cargo/cargo is unloaded, departures are loaded according to the destination, cargoes are stored in short time intervals during the day, and cargo/cargo transfers between vehicles are made.
It is a tool bag containing hand tools (hammer, screwdriver, etc.) and a flashlight for minor repairs.
Tarpaulin of trucks etc. It is the section in the truck bed that is above the driver's cabin, where they stack their belongings and allow the height of the load to be easily expressed.
Basar Tonnage
Basar is also expressed as tonnage. It means the load limit (maximum load amount) of the vehicle.
Fifth Wheel
It is a part on the chassis of the tractors, which is mounted to the length of the vehicle and designed to lock the connecting element of the semi-trailers, called the king pin, into it securely.
It is a road transport document. The CMR Certificate is a transport document issued in accordance with the International CMR Agreement for truck transports.
It is a motor land vehicle with at least two axles used for towing semi-trailers.
Permanent Vehicle
It is a spot vehicle that carries constantly.
It is the empty weight of the transport container.
Damper Case
Thanks to its hydraulic equipment specific to trucks, it is a type of body that can tilt 45 degrees in order to discharge the bulk cargo inside the body.
Tipper Semi Trailer
It is a body system that works with hydraulic equipment to tilt 45 degrees and unloads the load itself. Different from trucks, there are also dump semi-trailers that can wash the material on the right or left.
It is a place suitable for the storage of nationalized goods in open or closed areas.
The metal part on which the wheels rotate. Those with single tires are referred to as single axles, and those with double wheels are referred to as double axles.
Bulk Cargo
Cargo not in any packaging. For example, coal, iron powder, etc.
A unit equivalent to 40 feet. It is the unit of measurement used to indicate the capacity of containers. 1 FEU is 40 ft (length) × 8 ft (width) × 9 ft (height) or 12,192 m (height) × 2.44 m (width) × 2.59 m (height) in metric and has a volume of approximately 67.5 m³.
These are the bonded areas inside the factory.
It is a road vehicle designed and manufactured for the transport of foodstuffs, drugs and some chemicals sensitive to heat exchange, whose wall thickness and insulation value vary depending on the sensitivity of the material to the heat exchange and which has a cooling unit.
These are the measurements that determine the length, width and height of the vehicles in order to ensure safe travel on the road, loaded or unloaded.
Temporary Storage Location
It is the place where the goods are allowed to be temporarily stored by the customs administration until they are subjected to a customs-approved treatment or use after they are presented to the customs.
Passage Certificate
It is the document that specifies the cargo carried between the customs of departure and the customs of destination in international transports, that allows the passage through the customs of the countries of origin and destination and entry to the country where the cargo is to be unloaded. TIR Carnets are also included in the transit document.
Customs Enforcement Officer
It is the officer to whom the customs declarations are delivered after the inspection officer of the goods in the customs and bonded areas. In addition, the authority to make and open the seal of sealed materials such as containers has been given to these officers.
Intermodal Transportation
It is the type of transportation that is carried out by using two or more modes of transportation with the same transportation vehicle or container and in which the loads in the vehicle or container are not subjected to any handling during mode changes.
Limit of Istiab
It is the maximum weight of cargo or the number of passengers and servants that a vehicle or vehicle can safely carry and specified in the manufacturing standard.
Jumbo Semi Trailer
It is a semi-trailer with dimensions of 13.60m x 2.45m x 2.65m, with a gross volume of 90m3, and two-floor models.
It is the authorization document that natural or legal persons who will carry out intercity transportation of goods by road with one or more self-owned vehicles must obtain from the Ministry of Transport.
Combined Transport
It is a type of transportation that is not intermodal but is made by using more than one transportation vehicle (train, truck, etc.) in conjunction with each other.
It is a motor land vehicle with at least two axles, with a maximum permissible laden weight of more than 3.5 tons, manufactured for the transport of goods or cargo, with a chassis suitable for mounting equipment on a chassis for different purposes or a body. Some of the trucks are suitable for towing trailers due to their design and engine power.
Truck Trailer
It is a road vehicle for freight transport, consisting of a truck and a trailer manufactured in accordance with the characteristics of the load it will carry.
They are land transport vehicles with a maximum permissible weight of not exceeding 3.5 tons and manufactured to carry goods or cargo, with a case according to the type of load to be carried.
It is the measuring device that the vehicles that will receive loads stop to be weighed after they are empty and loaded.
Closed Safe
It is a semi-trailer class with closed sides and roof that can be loaded only by opening the tailgate.
Curtainsider Semi Trailer
It is a semi-trailer whose side surfaces and roof are closed with a curtain system, and which can be loaded both from the side and from the top of the chassis by opening the curtains.
Fishbone Semi Trailer (Container chassis semi trailer)
It is a semi-trailer with at least one axle, which is designed and manufactured for the purpose of transporting containers, with a skeleton chassis, and has a container lock (twist lock) placed at the cross-cross end in the quantity and distance appropriate for the type of container to be transported.
King Pin
It is a part made of forged steel that connects the semi-trailer tractor with the fifth wheel. It is produced in different sizes in line with the carrying capacity of the semi-trailer.
Rental Car
A certain monthly rent and km. They are vehicles that work with a percentage of fuel per head.
The money received from the driver of the vehicle who accepts to take the load, partly to be a side income and partly to prevent the driver from taking the load.
It is the person who finds the vehicle suitable for the cargo and receives a commission from the vehicle owner.
Commission Invoice
Invoice issued for commission received.
bill of lading
It is a cargo transport document containing information about the content of the cargo carried.
They are standard metal cargo boxes that are resistant to all kinds of atmospheric conditions, especially used in intermodal transportation, that can be easily handled and stacked on top of each other. Types of 20, 40 and 45 are the most common. This classification has been made according to the varying size of the containers.
Container Lock
It is the mechanism that vehicles that lift or transport containers have to fix the containers at the corners.
L2 Certificate
It is a type of authorization document that companies operating in international logistics should have in accordance with the Road Transport Law. Unless the violations specified by the provisions of the law are committed, the validity period of the certificate is 5 years.
It is a semi-trailer that enables the transportation of loads different from the length, height, width and tonnage that normal trucks and yachts can carry, other than the standards according to international and domestic road transport regulations, such as heavy construction machinery or special project loads.
Mega Semi Trailer
They are 13.60 m x 2.50 m x 3.00 m semi-trailers with a volume of 102 m³.
Certificate of professional competence
It is the document obtained by those who are engaged in activities within the scope of the Highways Regulation, who have taken the vocational qualification training stipulated in this regulation and/or who have been successful in the exams to be held.
Person engaged in transportation.
It is the amount of the shipping cost excluding VAT.
delivery order
It is the order given to clear the goods coming from abroad in return for the bill of lading.
Special Permit
It is the document given to vehicles with foreign license plates to replace the transit document and to carry Turkish export products, without seeking a transit document in transportation.
Special Cargo Carriage Certificate
Special Cargo Transport Permit from the General Directorate of Highways (Relevant Regional Directorates) in accordance with the 33rd of the Highway Traffic Law and the 66th and 128th articles of the Highway Traffic Regulation. It is obligatory to obtain the certificate and to carry out the transportation according to the principles in this permit.
It is a platform used in storage and shipment, produced from various materials and on which the goods are placed.
Loading Compass / Loading Offer
The document that certifies the agreement of the vehicle that received the job from the KN Office with the office workers, the commission it has given, and that it has come for loading to the company from which it will take its load.
Piece Load
They are partial cargoes that are not in the form of bulk cargo such as wheat and coal and cannot be placed in containers, can also be defined as general cargo, and can be in different package types.
Partial Distribution
It is the general name of the orders that need to be used by allocating the carrying capacity of the vehicle to more than one customer, or to the customers that need to go to more than one point.
Psychotechnical Test
The aim of psycho-technical evaluation is to measure and evaluate the mental and psychomotor skills levels of drivers that enable them to drive safely with objective methods. It consists of the evaluation of driving abilities, driving attitudes towards traffic and personality in terms of traffic psychology. The validity period of the document is 5 years.
R2 Certificate
It is a type of authorization document that companies that organize international transport should have, as per the Highway Transport Law. Unless the violations specified by the provisions of the law are committed, the validity period of the certificate is 5 years.
It is the area used to facilitate the process of taking the material to the warehouse or shipping it from the warehouse.
It is the system of picking up the same or different loads from various points within the framework of a program by a vehicle and delivering them to one or more points and collecting empty containers during deliveries or collecting and returning the empty containers by following the reverse route after all deliveries are completed.
Roller Carrier Semi Trailer
It is a semi-trailer manufactured to carry loads of similar shapes and sizes, especially sheet metal in the form of rolls. A round cylindrical space at the base, opened in the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, ensures that the load is supported from both sides when loaded on the vehicle, so that the measures to be taken to fix the load on the vehicle can be made more simply.
Platform Semi Trailer
It is a semi-trailer with a flat floor and no side covers. It is used to transport materials such as pipes, iron, containers. Its dimensions can be variable according to the container dimensions.
Shipment Note
Official document stating the name, amount, freight cost and invoice number of the load on the vehicle. It is a document that must be arranged and kept with the goods during the transportation of commercial goods from one place to another in order to control the goods in terms of tax legislation during transportation.
It is the monetary value appraised by the insurance adjuster for the damaged products.
Contract Vehicle
Vehicles belonging to someone else that the owner of the authorization certificate will operate under his own title and responsibility, based on a notary public transportation income sharing or rental agreement. They work per expedition or as Ytl / ton. Contracted vehicles working for a fixed monthly fee are complete rental vehicles.
It is the general name of polyester strips that are fixed to the surface on which the load will be carried by passing over the load and used to fix the load by stretching with a tensioning mechanism known as "purse purse".
Spot Vehicle
It is the general name of the vehicles with which a freelance, one-time transportation agreement is made.
It is a method generally used in land and sea transportation, it is the situation where the customs clearance of the material is made on the vehicle that carries the transportation.
Person who drives and manages a motor vehicle or vehicle on the highway
Urban Transportation
These are the transportations made within the boundaries of the municipality and the contiguous area.
Swap Body
Swap body is the name of the containers that are made too thin to be stacked on top of each other and cannot be lifted from the top by the stacker. They are made of very light materials to reduce initial purchase costs and keep fuel costs to a minimum in the long run. Its dimensions are standard ISO container dimensions so that it can be loaded onto other container-carrying vehicles. Thanks to its foldable feet, which are generally located at four corners, it can change the vehicle it is transported without the need for any loading/unloading system.
Full Trailer
Designed and manufactured according to the characteristics of the load to be pulled and carried by a truck, at least one axle and drawbar, turntable, hook etc. A tool connected by a connector identified by names.
It is a legal entity that carries out a certain transportation business on behalf of another company with vehicles owned or otherwise connected to it as a result of a contract.
Transport Waybill
It is a document issued by those carrying out transport activities, in accordance with the provisions of the relevant legislation, for the goods or cargo carried at the same time, on the same vehicle, belonging to one or more consignors and the sender.
Vehicle Certificate
It refers to the document prepared as an annex to the authorization certificate, separate from the authorization certificate, which lists the quality and number of vehicles that the owner of the authorization certificate will use.
Vehicle Card
Proving that a vehicle is only registered in the vehicle certificate annexed to an authorization certificate and can be operated under this certificate;
- the trade name of the owner of the authorization certificate,
- the type and number of the authorization document,
- the validity period of the vehicle card,
- It is the document containing the brand, type, model, license plate and color of the vehicle.
Truck Scale
It refers to a vehicle consisting of at least one towing and at most two towed trailers coupled together to navigate as a unit on the road.
Tilt Semi Trailer
It is a semi-trailer type whose side surfaces are covered with a partially openable awning system.
Unit equivalent to 20 feet. It is the unit of measurement used to indicate the capacity of containers. 1 TEU is 20 ft (length) × 8 ft (width) × 9 ft (height) or 6.10 m (height) × 2.44 m (width) × 2.59 m (height) in metric and approximately 38.5 m³ in volume. A 40' container is also expressed as 2 TEUs. However, 45' containers are also sized as 2 TEUs.
It is the initials of the French words Transports Internationaux Routiers. It is an agreement signed by the International Transport Union (IRU) within the United Nations Organization on January 15, 1959 in Geneva. This agreement is signed by 11 countries (Austria, Sweden, Portugal, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, France, Malta, Switzerland, Tunisia and Yugoslavia). It is a contract that allows combined transportation (road, rail, air, waterways) and the use of containers (1994).
In practice, the road vehicles of the countries included in this agreement carry a TIR Carnet indicating the type, quantity and nature of the bonded goods loaded on the vehicle and TIR plates to be affixed to certain parts of the vehicle. The customs control of the goods specified in the TIR Carnet and loaded on the vehicle is carried out in the country of origin, only external controls -except in doubtful cases- are sufficient at the customs of the countries on the route to the destination. In our country, the transport vehicles consisting of semi-trailer and tow truck are called TIR.
Truck Carnet
It is the carnet used in the TIR contract system and published by the IRU (International Road Transport Association) and made available to the member countries.
Public Transport Waybill
By the owner of the vehicle, transported at once; The waybill prepared by writing the destinations/customers and the corresponding goods, prepared for the distribution of goods with more than one point/customer, for one or more goods, is called a public transportation waybill.
Transit Transport
It refers to the transport of passengers or goods, which starts in any country and ends in another country after passing through the territory of at least one country, and covers the transports made through countries other than the countries of start and end.
It is the creation of an integrated transportation system, where transportation is carried out economically and technically effectively and quickly, with fleets that are safer and compatible with environmental standards, including the social dimensions of international transportation.
It is an international organization that was founded in 1953 by 17 countries, including Turkey as the founding country, and today has approximately 50 member countries. The activities in our country are carried out by the Ministry of Transport, and laws, regulations and practices related to standardization are carried out by this institution.
Fee Schedule
It refers to the document that regulates the transportation activities in terms of wages in regular transportations and which must be complied with.
Licence of authorization
It is a document issued by the Ministry that gives work permits to real and legal persons who will operate within the scope of the road transport regulation.
Domestic Transportation
It is the transportation made between two points within the borders of a province, starting from any point of any province and ending at any point of another province, or regardless of the distance.
Half romork
It is a road vehicle with at least one axle designed and manufactured specifically for the characteristics of the load it will carry, towed by a towing vehicle with an engine, and connected to the vehicle to which it is towed, by means of a connection system called king pin.
Maritime General Terms
ship owner, carrier
An organization that acts on behalf of the shipowner in any port and acts as its representative.
“Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier”
Consolidating the freight of forwarders with its own freight
Organizer company that has an active agency network that carries out the operations of road, air, sea, rail transport, customs clearance and insurance services.
Bill Of Lading (B/L)
seaway bill of lading
Master B/L
main bill of lading
House B/L
intermediate bill of lading
Charter Transport
It is the transportation made by renting the ship wholly or partially (part cargo).
Charter Party
It is the name given to the contract made between the carrier and the ship owner.
Bulk Loading
Bulk loading in conventional freight transport
Broker who acts as an intermediary between the ship owner and the loader
RO-RO Freight
Transportation by vehicles, trailers or container ships
Loading and Unloading Terms
Free In (FI)
Loading cost at the port
Free Out (FO)
The cost of unloading at the port
Liner In (LI)
The shipping cost belongs to the ship owner
Liner Out (LO)
The unloading cost belongs to the ship owner
Stacking, placing the load in the container
Emptying the container
Ship loading and unloading service
Port Terms
Storage / warehouse in the port
Exceeding the loading and unloading period granted to the vessel or not clearing and unloading the cargo waiting in the container before the allotted time
free time
Free time. The time the load can wait before it goes into demurrage. Demurrage is applied when the time expires.
(Terminal Handling Fee): Handling fee at the port
Temporary admission
Containers are in the status of goods subject to customs in accordance with the customs legislation in Turkey. For this reason, it is the customs clearance cost incurred when a container is removed from the bonded area at the port or brought back to the port.
Freight Terms
(Currency Adjustment Factor) Including US dollar fluctuations in freight
(Bunker Adjustment Factor) Including a certain percentage of fluctuations in fuel oil prices in overseas transportation.
The additional fee imposed by the shipowner, which is generally used for export freight from Turkey, to reduce the risk.
War Risk Surcharge (WRS)
Additional fee charged in addition to freight for voyages to ports at risk of war
High Cube Surcharge
Additional charge for High Cube container
IMCO Charge
Additional fee requested by the shipowner for the transportation of dangerous goods